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A Guide to User Journey Mapping

A Beginner’s Guide to User Journey Mapping

User journey maps help tell the story of customer experiences across a brand’s touchpoints. At Think Company, our teams use journey mapping to understand how users are actually using and experiencing a tool or process—and how that real-world experience aligns with the design’s intention. User journey mapping gives us valuable context and insight to build digital strategies that perform in real life.

What is a User Journey Map?

User journey map: Visual representation of users’ various paths while using a tool or system.

A user journey map is a tool that communicates a user’s “journey”—the path they take while they navigate an experience. User journey maps shed light on the emotional state at specific points during an experience, and can be used to highlight critical touchpoints along that journey. In general, user journey maps help stakeholders see the digital experience within a larger context.

User journey mapping also goes beyond the tool’s intention and illuminates how the user actually uses it and experiences it. If there’s a problem in the user journey, a user journey map allows you to identify the problem in the real world—and resolve it.

 

Why is User Journey Mapping Important?

The most important benefit of a user journey map is that it highlights any gaps between intention and reality. Digital experiences designed by even the most seasoned UX teams can still have a distinct difference between how they’re intended to be used and how a user moves through them. There’s always an element of unpredictability.

User journey mapping identifies “easy fixes” to alleviate obvious pain points while planning for the future, while also providing insight for creating a roadmap to fixing existing problems and building future solutions. But it’s not all doom and gloom—user journey maps also identify what’s working! This information provides an opportunity to learn from what’s successful, too.

Understanding the areas of disconnection not only inform design teams about where they can try to bridge the gap in the short term, but these learnings also inform future design decisions.

The other benefit to user journey mapping is that it creates a source of universal truth for the whole team to look at together. In many organizations, no one is responsible for looking at the entire experience from the user’s standpoint. With a user journey map, the data is comprehensive, objective, and can be talked about and addressed by the entire team.

Understanding the areas of disconnection not only inform design teams about where they can try to bridge the gap in the short term, but these learnings also inform future design decisions.

How to Create a Customer Journey Map

You can create a user journey map in a variety of instances and for a range of purposes. When thinking about how to create a user journey map, the first step is to identify the specific scenario you’ll be examining.

You can look at scenarios like:

  • What moments are causing people to call customer service?
  • How are new hires experiencing our onboarding process?
  • What factors influence customers to upgrade their subscription?

It’s also essential to think about this user journey and its relevance to the big picture. What is the larger context for this experience, and what other factors might be influencing the user’s journey?

For example, within the customer service ecosystem, users can call, chat, sometimes visit a store, sometimes a sales rep visits their home, or all customer service is self-serve. Ideally, all those experiences are equally seamless or even enjoyable for users. But if one of these individual experiences is inferior, it impacts the customer service experience. It’s essential to consider how this single journey influences and is influenced by other factors before you start.

Step 1: Research

When you create a user journey map, the first step is to identify your target user. This can be a group like current customers, customers of competitors’ experiences, employees, or even specific sub-segments of customers.

Then, double-check that the scenario is timely and relevant to your target. For example, if the scenario is onboarding, the users you learn from should be current employees who are going through onboarding now or have completed onboarding within a few months of the research.

It’s also essential to understand the length of time you’ll be studying. Do you want to look at a user’s 5-minute interaction with an app? Their experience with a brand over a year? The period matters here.

Once you’ve identified your target group, the period you’ll be examining, and ensured this scenario is relevant to your target user, you can move to gathering information. Conduct in-depth interviews, perform a contextual inquiry, or analyze the data from user surveys to understand each step the user takes as they interact with this digital experience.

You’ll want to understand as much about the user’s goals and needs while going through the experience, and their pain points along the way. During this step, it’s essential to use as many different types of research as needed to ensure your data is as comprehensive as possible.

Step 2: Synthesize

Once you have hit saturation with your data, move to finding commonalities within the users’ journeys. Create “stages” and identify key moments, touchpoints, and emotions that happen within each stage. It can also help to focus on these users’ needs and determine whether or not users can be grouped into personas or archetypes. From there, analyze the data to pinpoint what’s working—as well as pain points, user reactions to those issues, what the user needs from the client at that moment, and the available methods for troubleshooting.

This is often a great time to compare the data to initiatives that have already been implemented to meet users’ needs and identify opportunities for further research on touchpoints or archetypes.

Step 3: Build the map

Once you’ve synthesized and examined your data, you can start using the stages you’ve developed to begin plotting the user journey. It helps to create a touchpoint map, visualizing the customer processes and key interactions they have with you.

When building the overall user journey map, size and color help to emphasize major key moments and touchpoints, and varying highs and lows in the path conveys positive and negative emotions felt throughout the journey. This can sometimes lead to diverging paths if there is an overwhelming pain point that could occur.

It’s important to remember that while the user journey map tells the basic story of the user’s journey, it does not need to account for the nuance of each archetype. Think back to the goal of your map; what key insights do you want to communicate? Let that influence the data you highlight.

Step 4: Make it useful

This basic journey map will help you understand the user, but not necessarily how to address the user or the issues users face. To take it a step further, identify opportunities and create strategies to meet the user’s needs. This is the time to transition from research to design and start to take advantage of the insights you’ve gleaned.

Step 5: Further research

Sometimes, we don’t get all the insights needed to flesh out the full story during the first research phase. Depending on the subject matter, a quantitative survey may be required to understand the frequency of situations surrounding a particular touchpoint or validate whether a key moment happens often enough to be included in the journey map.

User Journey Map Examples

We’ve compiled three journey map examples so you can see a few of the many ways these maps can look.

 

Example journey map for a hired service

 

In this example of a journey map for a hired service, you see two simultaneous customer journeys—one for a best-case experience across touchpoints and one for a worst-case experience. The worst-case experience identifies points of frustration for the customer, eventually leading to a negative experience with a company. These examples can apply to many business and service types.

 

Example employee experience journey map

 

This example highlights how an employee experience can be tracked and assessed during a shorter time frame, like a typical workday. As employee needs are identified, and we find pain points caused by employer systems, the experiences create positive or negative patterns.

 

Example of a service blueprint map

 

This example of a service blueprint—a visual representation of all people, content, and processes in large projects or service design initiatives—shows another way to map experience when the details are more complex and involve many touchpoints. In this instance, all people involved in a roof installation project can see roles and responsibilities alongside a timeline with corresponding requirements and content needs.

Forming Digital Strategies with User Journey Mapping

In the context of digital strategy, user journey mapping is a valuable decision-making tool. A journey map helps your team understand what’s going well within your users’ experiences and where adjustments to your products can make them more helpful to the user.

By thinking about this user journey within a larger digital strategy, you can help your digital tools function within the larger environment and fit into your internal flows. It can also help you think through how your team works from design to development and where product owners fit in.

At Think Company, our teams use journey mapping to understand how users are actually using and experiencing a tool—and how that real-world experience can be adjusted to better align to the design’s intention and the client’s overall goals. But more importantly, user journey mapping empowers our team to understand the high-level, real-world experience the tool fits within. By zooming out of the digital into the real world and then zooming back in to specific touchpoints with the tool, we can create more successful experiences overall.


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